Thursday, February 4, 2016

Date of Publication Distribution Copyright in RDA & MARC 21 Field 264 Examples

Resource Description and Access RDA

Date of Publication, Distribution, and Copyright in Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Rules & MARC 264 Examples

Table of Contents:
  • Core Element
  • How Date of Publication is defined in RDA
  • Where the Rules are for Date of Publication in RDA
  • What are the Sources of Information for Date of Publication in RDA
  • How is Date of Publication Transcribed / Recorded in Resource Description and Access (RDA)
  • Dates of the Non-Gregorian or Julian Calendar; Dates in the Form of Chronogram
  • RDA Examples
  • What to do if the date on the resource is incorrect
  • Multipart Monographs, Serials, and Integrating Resources
  • Date of Publication not Identified in a Single-Part Resource
  • RDA Cataloging Examples of Dates
  • Supplying Dates (Date of Publication Not Identified in the Resource)
  • Importance of Supplying Probable Place and Date of Publication
  • Examples of Supplying Publication Data
  • Other RDA Examples of Dates
  • Date of Distribution
  • Where the Rules are for Date of Distribution in RDA
  • What are the Sources of Information for Date of Distribution in RDA
  • Recording Date of Distribution
  • Dates of the Non-Gregorian or Julian Calendar; Dates in the Form of Chronogram
  • Multipart Monographs, Serials, and Integrating Resources
  • Date of Distribution Not Identified in a Single-Part Resource
  • Copyright Date
  • Coreness for Copyright Date
  • Where the Rules are for Copyright Date in RDA
  • What are the Sources of Copyright Date in RDA
  • Recording Copyright Dates
  • Other RDA Blog posts on Publication, Distribution, and Copyright Date

Core Element: Date of publication is a Core Element; If the date of publication appears on the source of information in more than one calendar, only the date in the calendar preferred by the agency preparing the description is required.

How Date of Publication is defined in RDA: A date of publication is a date associated with the publication, release, or issuing of a resource.
The date of publication is the year in which the edition, revision, etc., described in the edition area was published. If there is no edition area, the date of the first publication of the edition to which the item belongs is considered the publication date.

Where the Rules are for Date of Publication in RDA: Look at instruction 2.8.6 in RDA Toolkit

What are the Sources of Information for Date of Publication in RDA: Take dates of publication from the following sources (in order of preference):

a) the same source as the title proper (see 2.3.2.2)

b) another source within the resource itself (see 2.2.2)

c) one of the other sources of information specified under 2.2.4.

How is Date of Publication Transcribed / Recorded in Resource Description and Access (RDA): Record the date of publication applying the basic 2.8.1 instructions on recording publication statements, using the form in which it appears on the source of information.

Example:
Source: Published in 2016
264  #1   ..., $c 2016.

Apply the guidelines on capitalization, punctuation, symbols, abbreviations, etc. given under 1.7.

Per LC-PCC PS 1.8.2 (First Alternative), transcribe roman numerals for publication dates; do not convert to Arabic. If the year appears only in Roman numerals, add the year in Arabic numerals, in brackets.

Example:
Source: MMXVI
264  #1   ..., $c MMXVI [2016]

Dates of the Non-Gregorian or Julian Calendar; Dates in the Form of Chronogram
  • LC-PCC PS 2.8.6.3: Add the corresponding date or dates of the Gregorian or Julian calendar if the date appearing in the resource is not of the Gregorian or Julian calendar.
Examples:

Source: 5630
264  #1   ..., $c 5630 [1869 or 1870]

Source: Heisei 1 
264  #1   ..., $c Heisei 1 [1989]

Source: anno 18
264  #1   ..., $c anno 18 [1939]

Source: Samvat 2000
264  #1   ..., $c Samvat 2000 [1943]

If the date as it appears on the resource is represented in different calendars, record the dates in the order indicated by the sequence, layout, or typography of the dates on the source of information.

Example:
Source: 4333 - 2000
264  #1   ..., $c 4333, 2000.

Resource Description and Access RDA

Question: What to do if the date on the resource is incorrect. Answer: If the date as it appears in the resource is known to be fictitious or incorrect, make a note giving the actual date

Example: Probable year of publication based on date range in which the publisher was active: Date of publication recorded as: [1969?]
  • LC-PCC PS 2.8.6.4: Record a supplied date in numerals instead of giving the chronogram. (A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which specific letters, interpreted as numerals, stand for a particular date when rearranged). Indicate that the information was taken from a source outside the resource itself. Example: [1945]
Multipart Monographs, Serials, and Integrating Resources

RDA Rule 2.8.6.5 is for Multipart Monographs, Serials, and Integrating Resources

If the first issue, part, or iteration of a multipart monograph, serial, or integrating resource is available, record the date of publication of that issue, part, or iteration, followed by a hyphen.
Example: 1988-

If publication of the resource has ceased or is complete and the first and last issues, parts, or iterations are available, record the dates of publication of those issues, parts, or iterations, separated by a hyphen.
Example: 1968-1973

If publication of the resource has ceased or is complete and the last issue, part, or iteration is available, but not the first, record the publication date of the last issue, part, or iteration, preceded by a hyphen.
Example: -1977

For an integrating resource, supply the date of the last update if it is considered to be important.
Example: 1995–1998 [updated 1999] [First and last published iterations of an updating loose-leaf available; date of last update known]

If the date of publication is the same for all issues, parts, or iterations, record only that date as the single date. Example: 1997

If the first and/or last issue, part, or iteration is not available, supply an approximate date or dates.

Example: [1998]- [Earliest issue available: v. 1, no. 3, July 1998]
1997-[2000] [Last part not available but information about ending date known]
[1988-1991] [First and last issues not available but information about beginning and ending dates known]

If the date or dates cannot be approximated, do not record a date of publication.

Date of Publication not Identified in a Single-Part Resource

RDA Rule 2.8.6.6 is for Date of Publication not Identified in a Single-Part Resource

If the date of publication is not identified in the single-part resource, supply the date or approximate date of publication. Apply the instructions in 1.9.2 on supplied dates (see p. 27).

If an approximate date of publication for a single-part resource cannot reasonably be determined, record [date of publication not identified].

But see the next page for important LC practice in such situations …………………
Look at LC-PCC PS 2.8.6.6

Supply a probable date of publication, if possible, using the guidelines below, rather than give “[date of publication not identified].”

A. If an item lacking a publication date contains only a copyright date, apply the following in the order listed:

1. Supply a date of publication that corresponds to the copyright date, in square brackets, if it seems reasonable to assume that date is a likely publication date.
Example:
Title page verso: Copyright ©2009
Prefaced signed: June 2009
Date of publication: not given

Transcription: 264 #1 $a … $b … $c [2009]
008/06: s
008/07-10: 2009
008/11-14: ####

2. If the copyright date is for the year following the year in which the publication is received, supply a date of publication that corresponds to the copyright date.
Example:
Title page verso: ©2009
Item received in: 2008
Date of publication: not given

Transcription: 264 #1 $a … $b … $c [2009]
optionally: 264 #4 $c ©2009
008/06: t
008/07-10: 2009
008/11-14: 2009

B. If an item lacking a publication date contains a copyright date and a date of manufacture and the year is the same for both, supply a date of publication that corresponds to that date, in square brackets, if it seems reasonable to assume that date is a likely publication date.
Example:
Title page verso: ©1980//1980 printing
Date of publication: not given

Transcription: 264 #1 $a … $b … $c [1980]
008/06: s
008/07-10: 1980
008/11-14: ####

C. If an item lacking a publication date contains a copyright date and a date of manufacture and the years differ, supply a date of publication that corresponds to the copyright date, in square brackets, if it seems reasonable to assume that date is a likely publication date. A manufacture date may also be recorded as part of a manufacture statement if determined useful by the cataloger, or record it in MARC field 588 as a Note on issue, part, or iteration used as the basis for identification of a resource (2.20.13)
Example:
Title page verso: ©1978//Sixth Printing 1980
Prefaced signed: June 1978
Date of publication: not given

Transcription: 264 #1 $a … $b … $c [1978]
optionally: 264 #3 $a … $b … $c 1980.
588 ## $a Description based on sixth printing, 1980.
008/06: s
008/07-10: 1978
008/11-14: ####

D. If an item contains only a date of distribution, apply the following in the order listed:
1. Supply a date of publication that corresponds to the distribution date, in square brackets, if it seems reasonable to assume that date is a likely publication date. Also record a date of distribution as part of a distribution statement if determined useful by the cataloger.
Example:
Title page verso: Distributed 2008
Bibliography includes citations to 2007 publications
Date of publication: not given

Transcription: 264 #1 $a London :$b Gay Mens Press, $c [2008]
008/06: s
008/07-10: 2008
008/11-14: ####
optionally: also give 264 #2 $a Chicago, IL : Distributed in North America by InBook/LPC Group, $c 2008

2. If it does not seem reasonable to assume that the distribution date is a likely publication date, supply a date of publication, in square brackets, based on the information provided. Also record the distribution date as part of a distribution statement if determined useful by the cataloger.
Example:
Title page verso: Distributed in the USA in 1999
Prefaced signed: London, January 1993
Date of publication: not given

Transcription: 264 #1 $a … :$b … $c [between 1993 and 1999]
008/06: q
008/07-10: 1993
008/11-14: 1999

E. If an item lacking a publication date contains only a date of manufacture, apply the following in the order listed:

1. Supply a date of publication that corresponds to the manufacture date, in square brackets, if it seems reasonable to assume that date is a likely publication date. For books, this means that the item is assumed to be the first printing of the edition. Also record the manufacture date as part of a manufacture statement if determined useful by the cataloger.
Example:
Title page verso: First Printing 1980
Date of publication: not given

Transcription: 264 #1 $a … :$b … $c [1980]
008/06: s
008/07-10: 1980
008/11-14: ####

2. If the date of manufacture given implies that it is not likely the same as the date of publication, supply a date of publication, in square brackets, using the information provided. Also record the date of manufacture as part of a manufacture statement if determined useful by the cataloger, or record it in MARC field 588 as a Note on issue, part, or iteration used as the basis for identification of a resource.
Example:
Title page verso: 15th Impression 1980
Date of publication: not given

Transcription: 264 #1 $a … :$b … $c [not after 1980]
optionally: 588 ## $a Description based on 15th impression, 1980.
008/06: q
008/07-10: uuuu
008/11-14: 1980

Supplying Dates (Date of Publication Not Identified in the Resource)
RDA 1.9.2 shows examples of supplying dates

Actual year known: 264 … $c [2010]

Either one of two consecutive years: 264 … $c [2009 or 2010]

Probable year: 264 … $c [2010?]

Probable range of years: 264 … $c [between 2008 and 2010?]

Earliest and/or latest possible date known:
264 … $c [not before January 15, 2010]
264 … $c [not before September 3, 1779]  - earliest date is known
264 … $c [not after August 21, 1492]  - latest date is known
264 …$c [between October 25, 1899 and February 25, 1900]  - both earliest and latest dates are known

Importance of Supplying Probable Place and Date of Publication
LC Policy strongly encourages you to supply a probable place of publication and a probable date of publication when this information is not on the resource. This helps with displays, and limits by place and date in OPACs. If you cannot supply this data, you will need to record Distribution data, and perhaps even Manufacture data.
  • Distribution elements are Core Elements ONLY if Publication data can not be identified. So you can save yourself the trouble of recording distribution data by supplying place and date of publication. And you can use distribution or manufacture information to help supply place and date of publication.
As a last resort, if you have to give any distribution or manufacture information, give distribution information if present; if not, then give manufacture information. Be sure to give as complete a statement as possible.

Examples of Supplying Publication Data

Distribution statements are recorded in MARC field 264 #2. This need for a second MARC field is another reason why you are strongly encouraged to supply publication data if at all possible.

These examples illustrate how supplying publication data is easier -- and perfectly acceptable:

Example A:
On source: ABC Publishers, 2009
Distributed by Iverson Company, Seattle

RDA: 264 #1 $a [Place of publication not identified] : $b ABC Publishers, $c 2009.
264 #2 $a Seattle : $b distributed by Iverson Company, $c [2009]

LC-Recommended: 264 #1 $a [Seattle?] : $b ABC Publishers, $c 2009.

Example B:
On source: On title page: Means Pub. Co., Omaha, Nebraska
On title page verso: 2009 distribution

RDA: 264 #1 $a Omaha, Nebraska : $b Means Pub. Co., $c [date of publication not identified]
264 #2 $a [Place of distribution not identified]: $b [distributor not identified], $c 2009.

LC-Recommended: 264 #1 $a Omaha, Nebraska : $b Means Pub. Co., $c [2009?]

But sometimes distribution information must be provided when probable publisher information cannot be supplied:

Example C:
On jewel box: Published in 2010 in Providence; distributed in Boston and Ottawa by KL, Inc.

RDA and LC: 264 #1 $a Providence : $b [publisher not identified], $c 2010.
264 #2 $a Boston ; $a Ottawa : $b KL, Inc., $c [2010]

OTHER RDA EXAMPLES OF DATES:

Title page verso:
First published, ALA Editions, 1955
Reissued 1985 by Facet Publishing
Reprint edition 2016 by Libraries Unlimited, New York
264  #1   New York : $b Libraries Unlimited, $c 2016.

Title page verso:
First published in 1985  Sixth printing 1990
264  #1  ..., $c1985.

Title page date:  1996
Title page verso:
First printed, 1997
264  #1  ...,$c 1996 [that is, 1997]

Title page verso:
First published in 1973
Sixth printing 1975
264  #1   ..., $c 1973.

Title page verso: May 2016
264  #1   ..., $c May 2016.

Date of Distribution 
Date of distribution is a Core Element for a resource in a published form if the date of publication is not identified.

Where the Rules are for Date of Distribution in RDA: Look at instruction 2.9.6

What are the Sources of Information for Date of Distribution in RDA: 
Sources: Take dates of distribution from the following sources (in order of preference):
a) the same source as the title proper (see 2.3.2.2)
b) another source within the resource itself (see 2.2.2)
c) one of the other sources of information specified under 2.2.4.

For multipart monographs and serials, take the beginning and/or ending date of distribution from the first and/or last released issue or part, or from another source.

For integrating resources, take the beginning and/or ending date of distribution from the first and/or last iteration, or from another source.

Recording Date of Distribution
If the date of distribution differs from the date of publication, record the date of distribution, if it is considered to be important, applying the basic instructions on recording distribution statements.

Dates of the Non-Gregorian or Julian Calendar; Dates in the Form of Chronogram
As with dates of publication, LC Policy Statements provide guidance in these situations.

Multipart Monographs, Serials, and Integrating Resources
RDA 2.8.6.5 provides guidance regarding dates in these situations.  The guidelines are similar to the guidelines for date of publication.

Date of Distribution Not Identified in a Single-Part Resource
  • If the date of distribution is not identified in a single-part resource, supply the date or an approximate date of distribution. Apply the instructions on supplied dates given under 1.9.2. 
  • If an approximate date of distribution for a single-part resource cannot reasonably be determined, record [date of distribution not identified]. 
  • If the resource is in an unpublished form (e.g., a manuscript, a painting, a sculpture), record nothing in the date of distribution element.
Copyright Date 

CORENESS for LC: Give a copyright date for a single-part monograph if neither the date of publication nor the date of distribution is identified.  You are not required to record copyright dates for multipart monographs, serials, and integrating resources.
A copyright date is a date associated with a claim of protection under copyright.

Where the Rules are for Copyright Date in RDA:Look at instruction 2.11
What are the Sources of Copyright Date in RDA: Take information on copyright dates from any source.

Recording Copyright Dates
Record copyright dates, applying the general guidelines on numbers given under 1.8.  Precede the date by the copyright symbol © or the phonogram symbol , or by “copyright” or “phonogram” if the symbol cannot be reproduced.  If the resource has multiple copyright dates that apply to various aspects (e.g., text, sound, graphics), record only the latest copyright date.

Copyright date is recorded in MARC field 264, second indicator 4; $c is the only subfield used.

Examples:
  264 #4 $c ©2002
264 #4 $c ℗1983

Source : Based on information from Library of CongressRDA Blog, OCLC and RDA Toolkit

Author: Salman Haider
Revised 2016-02-05 | Written 2016-02-04

See also other RDA Blog posts on Publication, Distribution, and Copyright Date:
  
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Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Resource Description and Access (RDA) Traffic Stats

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets and shares ....

Please post your feedback and comments on RDA Blog Guest Book. Select remarks will be posted on RDA Blog Testimonials page.

INTRODUCTION TO RDA BLOG:

RDA Blog is a blog on Resource Description and Access (RDA), a new library cataloging standard that provides instructions and guidelines on formulating data for resource description and discovery, organized based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), intended for use by libraries and other cultural organizations replacing Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2). RDA Blog lists description and links to resources on Resource Description & Access (RDA). It is an attempt to bring together at one place all the useful and important information, rules, references, news, and links on Resource Description and AccessFRBRFRADFRSADMARC standardsAACR2BIBFRAME, and other items related to current developments and trends in library cataloging practice.

Author: Salman Haider

RDA BLOG HIGHLIGHTS AND TRAFFIC STATS

RDA Blog HistoryRDA Blog is the first and oldest blog exclusively devoted to Resource Description and Access  (RDA). RDA Blog was created by Salman Haider, a Cataloging & Metadata Librarian Blogger & Online Social Media Expert from India. RDA Blog embarked on its journey to provide useful information about Resource Description and Access (RDA) in August 2011. It received good response from librarians, catalogers, and library professionals from all around the world. It is interesting to note that the first hundred thousand pageviews to RDA Blog came in 3 years, but it took just 8 months to reach another hundred thousand pageviews. At present it is viewed at a rate of fifteen to twenty thousand times per month. RDA Blog is widely followed in social media.
  RDA Blog also made it to the list of useful resources of following:

Wednesday, December 30, 2015

Top 10 RDA Blog Posts of 2015 on Resource Description & Access Cataloging

RDA Blog

This was the fourth year of RDA Blog on Resource Description and Access (RDA).  We hope that our posts have been both interesting and helpful to all librarians and catalogers. As 2015 comes to a close, I want to share our most read articles of the year.

Top 10 RDA Blog Posts of 2015 

  1. RDA Cataloging Rules for Pseudonyms with MARC 21 Examples
  2. International Standard Book Number (ISBN) - MARC to RDA Mapping
  3. RDA Cataloging Examples
  4. Articles, Books, Presentations on Resource Description and Access (RDA)
  5. Establishing Certain Entities in the Name or Subject Authority File : RDA Cataloging
  6. Libhub Initiative
  7. Corrected Titles Proper & Variant Titles : RDA vs AACR2 : Questions and Answers & Best Practices
  8. RDA Bibliography
  9. LC RDA Implementation of Relationship Designators in Bibliographic Records
  10. 33X fields do not necessarily mean RDA
Thank you for reading RDA Blog on Resource Description and Access (RDA)! Happy New Year, friends!

Resource Description and Access


Friday, December 25, 2015

Name of Publisher in RDA & AACR2 & MARC 21 Examples


CORE ELEMENT: Publisher's Name is a Core Element; if more than one publisher’s name appears on the source of information, only the first recorded is required.

How is Publisher's Name is defined in RDAA publisher's name is the name of a person, family, or corporate body responsible for publishing, releasing, or issuing a resource. For early printed resources, printers and booksellers are treated as publishers. (RDA Rule 2.8.4.1)

Where are Rules for Publisher's Name in RDALook at instruction 2.8.4 in RDA Toolkit.

What are the Sources of Information for Publisher's Name in RDA: Take places of publication from the following sources (in order of preference):

a) the same source as the title proper

b) another source within the resource itself

c) one of the other sources of information specified under 2.2.4

How is Publisher's Name Transcribed / Recorded in Resource Description and Access (RDA)Record the publisher's name applying the basic instructions on recording publication statements given under 2.8.1 -- “in the form in which they appear on the source of information.” LC-PCC PS 2.8.4.3 states, “Generally do not omit levels in corporate hierarchy.”
Record words or phrases indicating the function (other than solely publishing) performed by a person, family, or corporate body as they appear on the source of information.

More than One Publisher in Resource Description and Access (RDA): If more than one entity is named as a publisher of the resource, record the entities in the order indicated by the sequence, layout, or typography of the names on the source of information.

Publisher's Name in More Than One Language or Script: If the name of a publisher appears on the source of information in more than one language or script, record the form that is in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply, record the name in the language or script that appears first.

No Publisher Identified in Resource Description and Access (RDA)For a resource in a published form, if no publisher is named within the resource, and cannot be identified from other sources, record [publisher not identified].  Do not record [s.n.] as was done in AARC2 cataloging.

MARC 21 Field 264264 - Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice (R)

First Indicator
Sequence of statements
# - Not applicable/No information provided/Earliest
2 - Intervening
3 - Current/Latest

Second Indicator
Function of entity
0 - Production
1 - Publication
2 - Distribution
3 - Manufacture
4 - Copyright notice date

Subfield Codes
$a - Place of production, publication, distribution, manufacture (R)
$b - Name of producer, publisher, distributor, manufacturer (R)
$c - Date of production, publication, distribution, manufacture, or copyright notice (R)
$3 - Materials specified (NR)
$6 - Linkage (NR)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

Subfield Code
$b - Name of producer, publisher, distributor, manufacturer (R)

264 #1 $a Boston : $b [publisher not identified], $c 2010. [On source: Published in Boston, 2010]

264 #3 $a Cambridge : $b Kinsey Printing Company [On source: Cambridge -- Kinsey Printing Company; No distribution information]

RDA Examples of Recording Publisher's Name in MARC 21 Field 264:

       264 #1 $a New York :$b J.J. Wilson Publishing Company
not: 264 #1 $a New York :$b Wilson Pub. Co.

source: Humanities Association, Literature Division, Renaissance Literature Section
record : 264 #1 $a Chicago : $b Humanities Association, Literature Division, Renaissance Literature Section 
(Do not rearrange a hierarchy to put the larger body first. Transcribe in the order given.)

source: Toronto -- Pilkington Pub. Co.
             Houston -- Davidson Publishers
record: 264 #1 $a Toronto : $b Pilkington Pub. Co.
(Transcribe abbreviations that are used on the source. Do not abbreviate words appearing in full.)

Following examples are from OCLC:

264 #1 ‡a [Place of publication not identified] : ‡b ABC Publishers, ‡c 2009.
264 #2 ‡a Seattle : ‡b Iverson Company
[On source: ABC Publishers, 2009; distributed by Iverson Company, Seattle]

264 #1 ‡a New York, New York : ‡b Dell Publishing Co., Inc., ‡c [1972]

264 #1 ‡a New York, N.Y. : ‡b New York Labor News Company, ‡c [1961]

264 #1 ‡a [Chicago?] : ‡b Chicago and North Western Line, ‡c [1940?]

264 #1 ‡a New York : ‡b Basic Books, a member of the Perseus Books Group, ‡c [2014]

264 #1 ‡a Munchen, Germany : ‡b C.H. Beck ; ‡a Oxford, United Kingdom : ‡b Hart ; ‡a Baden-Baden, Germany : ‡b Nomos ; ‡a Basel, Switzerland : ‡b Helbing Lichtenhahn, ‡c 2014.

Case: One or more agencies are sponsoring bodies rather than publishers:

Source: Published by Library Management Ltd. New Delhi For The Institute of Information Science Chicago University And The University College, London
264 #1 New Delhi : ‡b Published by Library Management Ltd. for the  Institute of Information Science, Chicago University, and the University College, London

Source: Published for the University College, London, England by University of Cambridge University Press    Cambridge Oxford
264 #1 Cambridge : ‡b Published for the University College, London, England, by Cambridge University Press

Source: Indian Publishers, New Delhi for Indian Institute of Dalit Studies, New Delhi
264 #1 New Delhi : ‡b Indian Publishers for Indian Institute of Dalit Studies

Source: Published by Facet Publications on behalf of American Library Association
264 #1 New York, N.Y. : ‡b Facet Publications on behalf of American Library Association

264 #2 ‡a [Place of distribution not identified] : ‡b Distributed by Hal Leonard

264 #3 ‡a Hong Kong : ‡b [manufacturer not identified], ‡c [1995]


Source : Based on information from Library of CongressRDA Blog, OCLC and RDA Toolkit

See also:
  
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Thursday, December 24, 2015

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Assigning and Constructing

Library of Congress Subject Headings LCSH

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Assigning and Constructing

http://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2015/12/library-of-congress-subject-headings.html

New Post on Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog provides a comprehensive and most up-to-date description of Assigning and Constructing Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) : Principles, Practices, and Examples From Subject Headings Manual (SHM) Instruction Sheet H 180 (Visit above link to read complete article ... ... ...)



BACKGROUND: This instruction sheet contains general practices followed by the Library of Congress for assigning subject headings to individual works being cataloged and for constructing subject heading strings in the Library of Congress subject heading system. This instruction sheet begins after the initial steps of subject analysis have taken place, that is, after an examination of the item to determine its subject focus and an identification of how that basic subject is expressed with the controlled vocabulary of the Library of Congress subject heading system.
Contents:
1. General rule (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to the work being cataloged) 
2. Cataloging treatment (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) corresponding to the cataloging treatment of the work) 
3. Number of headings (what is the number of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) required in a catalog record) 
4. Specificity (in assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
5. Depth of indexing (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) that most closely correspond to the overall coverage of the work) 
6. General topic and subtopic; principle vs. specific case (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a work discusses a general topic with emphasis on a particular subtopic, or presents a principle and illustrates the principle with a specific case or example)
7. Two or three related headings (how-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a heading exists, or can be established, that represents the two or three topics discussed in a work)
8. Rule of three (when it is appropriate to assign up-to three Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
9. Rule of four (when it is appropriate to assign up-to four Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
10. Multi-element topics (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) if a work discusses a complex or compound topic for which a single heading neither exists nor can be practically constructed or established)
11. Additional aspects (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) with important additional aspects, such as limitation to a specific place or time, focus on specific named entities, and presentation in a particular form)
12. Concepts in titles (How-to assign Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to bring out concepts in titles and subtitles)
13. Additional headings (How-to assign additional Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) which are required because of the complex nature of certain topics, or special practices that have been developed for particular topics)
14. Objectivity (Principle to avoid assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) that label topics or express personal value judgments regarding topics or materials)
15. Constructing headings (Examples of different types of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH))
16. Complete subject heading strings with subdivisions (Addition of subdivisions to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to complete subject heading strings)

Major Steps in the subject cataloging process: Principles of SLAM

Translate into LCSH

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the most widely used Subject Heading List throughout the world. Even though all libraries use LCSH to provide Subject Heading, most of them are not aware of the proper guidelines and practices for applying LCSH headings. I am saying this from my experience of working in some major libraries in India, namely the National Library of India, Central Reference Library, and the Indian School of Business Library and observing the catalogs of various libraries of different countries and also records in WorldCat database of OCLC, world's largest library catalog. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is one of the focus areas of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog. It aims to generate awareness and provide information to librarians and catalogers about Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) based on international standards. Till recently Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) were available as paid products from LC and were very costly. Now that these are made available for free, it is a great initiative and service by the Library of Congress to the profession of librarianship and libraries should cash this opportunity to provide Subject Headings in their catalogs in the correct way using LCSH.

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Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on Library Technical Processing and Information Access Through The Subject with special reference to the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM), Subject Headings Manual (SHM), and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress. Librarianship Studies Blog will also highlight the history, development, and techniques of providing classification number using Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC).

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