Saturday, May 28, 2016

Relationship Designators in RDA

RDA RELATIONSHIP DESIGNATORS
RDA RELATIONSHIP DESIGNATORS

RDA AppendicesChapter Title
IRELATIONSHIP DESIGNATORS: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN A RESOURCE AND PERSONS, FAMILIES, AND CORPORATE BODIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE RESOURCE
I.2Relationship Designators for Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with a Work
I.2.1Relationship Designators for Creators
I.2.2Relationship Designators for Other Persons, Families, or Corporate Bodies Associated with a Work
I.3Relationship Designators for Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with an Expression
I.3.1Relationship Designators for Contributors
I.4Relationship Designators for Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with a Manifestation
I.4.1Relationship Designators for Manufacturers
I.4.2Relationship Designators for Publishers
I.4.3Relationship Designators for Distributors
I.5Relationship Designators for Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with an Item
I.5.1Relationship Designators for Owners
I.5.2Relationship Designators for Other Persons, Families, or Corporate Bodies Associated with an Item
JRELATIONSHIP DESIGNATORS: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WORKS, EXPRESSIONS, MANIFESTATIONS, AND ITEMS
J.2Relationship Designators for Related Works
J.2.1Related Work Relationships (Record an appropriate term from the lists at J.2.2–J.2.6 with the identifier, authorized access point, or structured description of the related work)
J.2.2Derivative Work Relationships
J.2.3Referential Work Relationships (Designators for referential work relationships will be added in a future release of RDA.)
J.2.4Whole-Part Work Relationships
J.2.5Accompanying Work Relationships
J.2.6Sequential Work Relationships
J.3Relationship Designators for Related Expressions
J.3.1Related Expression Relationships (Record an appropriate term from the lists at J.3.2–J.3.6 with the identifier, authorized access point, or structured description of the related expression)
J.3.2Derivative Expression Relationships
J.3.3Referential Expression Relationships (Designators for referential expression relationships will be added in a future release of RDA.)
J.3.4Whole-Part Expression Relationships
J.3.5Accompanying Expression Relationships
J.3.6Sequential Expression Relationships
J.4Relationship Designators for Related Manifestations
J.4.1Related Manifestation Relationships (Record an appropriate term from the lists at J.4.2–J.4.5 with the identifier or structured description of the related manifestation)
J.4.2Equivalent Manifestation Relationships
J.4.3Referential Manifestation Relationships (Designators for referential manifestation relationships will be added in a future release of RDA.)
J.4.4Whole-Part Manifestation Relationships
J.4.5Accompanying Manifestation Relationships
J.5Relationship Designators for Related Items
J.5.1Related Item Relationships (Record an appropriate term from the lists at J.5.2–J.5.5 with the identifier or structured description of the related item)
J.5.2Equivalent Item Relationships
J.5.3Referential Item Relationships (Designators for referential item relationships will be added in a future release of RDA.)
J.5.4Whole-Part Item Relationships
J.5.5Accompanying Item Relationships
KRELATIONSHIP DESIGNATORS: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERSONS, FAMILIES, AND CORPORATE BODIES
K.2Relationship Designators for Related Persons
K.2.1Relationship Designators to Relate Persons to Other Persons
K.2.2Relationship Designators to Relate Persons to Families
K.2.3Relationship Designators to Relate Persons to Corporate Bodies
K.3Relationship Designators for Related Families
K.3.1Relationship Designators to Relate Families to Persons
K.3.2Relationship Designators to Relate Families to Other Families
K.3.3Relationship Designators to Relate Families to Corporate Bodies
K.4Relationship Designators for Related Corporate Bodies
K.4.1Relationship Designators to Relate Corporate Bodies to Persons
K.4.2Relationship Designators to Relate Corporate Bodies to Families
K.4.3Relationship Designators to Relate Corporate Bodies to Other Corporate Bodies
LRELATIONSHIP DESIGNATORS: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CONCEPTS, OBJECTS, EVENTS, AND PLACES [To be developed after the initial release of RDA]
MRELATIONSHIP DESIGNATORS: SUBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
M.2Relationship Designators for Subjects
M.2.1Subjects (Record an appropriate term from the lists at M.2.2–M.2.5 with the identifier, authorized access point, and/or description indicating the relationship between a work and its subject)
M.2.2Work as Subject of a Work
M.2.3Expression as Subject of a Work
M.2.4Manifestation as Subject of a Work
M.2.5Item as Subject of a Work


Saturday, May 14, 2016

Resource Description and Access RDA Blog Revision

Resource Description and Access RDA
click to enlarge

Resource Description and Access RDA Blog Revision: RDA Blog has undergone some major revisions.

Contents:
  • RDA Blog has moved to HTTPS from HTTP 
  • Formatting Changes in RDA Blog posts and Pages 
  • References in Resource Description and Access RDA Blog 
  • RDA FAQ - Resource Description and Access Frequently Asked Questions Revision
RDA Blog has moved to HTTPS from HTTP

Resource Description and Access RDA Blog is now even more secure. RDA Blog has enabled HTTPS. The URL has moved to https://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/

HTTPS has become a web-standard & one of those practices that every webmaster should follow. HTTPS is great for the security of data as it encrypts the data transferred between users & a website. Especially it protects them from common hacking practices such as data sniffing & man-in-the-middle-attack. 

There are three main benefits to using HTTPS instead of HTTP to access RDA Blog:
  • It helps check that your visitors open the correct website and aren’t being redirected to a malicious site.
  • It helps detect if an attacker tries to change any data sent from Blogger to the visitor.
  • It adds security measures that make it harder for other people to listen to your visitors’ conversations, track their activities, or steal their information.
Formatting Changes in RDA Blog posts and Pages

Formatting of some Resource Description and Access RDA Blog posts and pages are changed to give a uniform look. Following are the RDA Blog pages who has undergone major formatting revisions:
References in Resource Description and Access RDA Blog

Starting from May 10, 2016, articles in Resource Description & Access (RDA) or RDA Blog will follow the reference formats as used by articles in the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences (ELIS). [Exception being the items in RDA Bibliography].

RDA FAQ - Resource Description and Access Frequently Asked Questions Revision

RDA FAQ page is thoroughly revised. We are in a process of revising RDA Blog posts. The important posts are compiled in the RDA FAQ.

RDA FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS - RDA FAQ

Resource Description and Access Frequently Asked Questions (RDA FAQ) is an initiative of Resource Description & Access (RDA) (or RDA Blog) to compile a list of questions people ask about RDA. Answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ) about Resource Description and Access (RDA) are given from the articles of RDA Blog in abbreviated form with links to the main articles. As RDA continue to be developed, questions and answers will be added and revised from time to time.

Some of the answers to questions are taken from Glossary of Library and Information Science of Librarianship Studies and Information Technology blog, which is a partner blog of RDA Blog. Both of these blogs are authored by Salman Haider.


Resource Description & Access FAQ

  • What is RDA?
  • Why is it necessary to issue a brand new standard?
  • What are the benefits of RDA? / Why is RDA needed?
  • What are the foundations of RDA? / What are FRBR, FRAD, and FRSAD? What are their relationship to RDA? / How does RDA relate to the Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (ICP)?
  • Who developed RDA?
  • How can I access RDA? / Who publishes RDA? / What is RDA Toolkit?
  • What is the difference between RDA Toolkit and RDA?
  • What does RDA Toolkit include?
  • How often will RDA Toolkit be updated?
  • What does RDA cost?
  • What is RDA Blog or Resource Description & Access (RDA) blog?
  • Who is responsible for the ongoing development of RDA?
  • What is the process of suggesting changes to RDA?
  • When was RDA released?
  • When was RDA implemented?
  • What needs to be done to implement RDA in individual libraries?
  • Has OCLC released a policy statement on RDA?
  • What is the structure of RDA?
  • What are RDA Core Elements?
  • What are Alternatives Options & Exceptions in RDA?
  • What is LC-PCC PS?
  • Where are RDA Examples?
  • Can a record cataloged by the RDA standard be readily identified?
  • What differences will I see in my MARC records?
  • Does RDA focus on the recording of data, the presentation of data, or both?
  • Is ISBD punctuation required in RDA?
  • Why aren’t GMDs (general material designations) in RDA?
  • What are the guidelines for Undifferentiated Personal Names in RDA Cataloging?
  • How to Give Date of Publication Distribution Copyright in RDA & MARC 21?
  • How to to Record Name of Publisher in RDA AACR2 & MARC 21?
  • How to Transcribe Place of Publication in RDA & AACR2 & MARC 21?
  • Where are the Links to Important RDA Blog Posts on Recording Production Publication Distribution Manufacture Statements and Dates in RDA and MARC 21 Field 264?
  • What are the Featured Categories of RDA Blog?
  • Where is the RDA History Timeline?

Please check out these changes and let us know your feedback in RDA Blog Guest Book.

Author: Salman Haider [Revised 2016-05-14 | Written 2016-05-14]

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Wednesday, March 30, 2016

Alternatives Options and Exceptions in RDA : What Every Cataloger Needs to Know

RDA Alternatives Options Exceptions

Contents:
  • Alternatives Options and Exceptions in RDA : What Every Cataloger Needs to Know
  • What are RDA Alternatives?
  • Example of RDA Alternatives
  • What are RDA Options?
  • Example of RDA Optional Additions
  • Example of RDA Optional Omissions
  • What are RDA Exceptions? 
  • Example of RDA Exceptions
  • How to decide whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions?
  • Note on the use of screen images from RDA Toolkit (Following RDA and RDA Toolkit Copyright Statement and guidelines)

Alternatives Options and Exceptions in RDA : What Every Cataloger Needs to Know
RDA contains a number of guidelines and instructions that are marked as alternatives, options (optional additions, optional omissions), and exceptions. Each of these is clearly identified by an italicized label, which in the RDA Toolkit appears in green color in the instruction (alternative, optional addition, optional omission, exception). A green vertical bar also appears in the left margin next of an alternative, optional, or exceptional instruction in RDA Toolkit. These allow individual libraries or cataloging agencies to make decisions based on individual considerations in cases where two or more provisions are equally valid. Guidelines for alternatives and options are provided in RDA rule 0.8, and instructions for applying exceptions is at RDA 0.9 of chapter 0. 

What are RDA Alternatives?
Glossary of Library & Information Science defines Alternatives in RDA as below:
RDA Alternatives  In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as alternativesAlternative guidelines and instructions  in Resource Description and Access (RDA) provide an alternative approach to what is specified in the immediately preceding guideline or instruction. A cataloger can choose to follow the rule or the alternative.

Example of RDA Alternatives: at RDA 2.3.2.9: Resource Lacking a Collective Title, the general instruction states: “If: the type of description chosen for the resource is a comprehensive description and the resource lacks a collective title then: record the titles proper of the parts as they appear on the source of information for the resource as a whole … …” Immediately after the examples, an alternative is given as: “Devise a collective title by applying the instructions … If considered important for identification or access, record the titles of individual parts as the titles proper of related manifestations …” If you observe the screen image of RDA Toolkit, just after the label Alternative there are icons that link to various policy statements. If you go to the LC-PCC PS for this alternative, it says: “LC practice/PCC practice for Alternative: Generally, do not apply.” So according to LC-PCC PS on the alternative instruction, the cataloger should not devise a collective title in this case.

RDA ALTERNATIVES
"Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org) used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)".
What are RDA Options?
Glossary of Library & Information Science defines Options in RDA as below:
RDA Options  In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as optionsOptions appear in two forms in RDA, viz. optional additions and optional omissions. The optional addition of data that supplement what is called for in the immediately preceding instruction, or the optional omission of specific data called for in the immediately preceding instruction. Hence, it can be said that optional instruction offers the opportunity to either supplement required data with additional information (metadata), or omit data from what is instructed in the preceding rules. Here it is important to note that each library or cataloging agency can decide when or whether to follow the options or just follow the rules in the immediately preceding instruction. They may choose to establish their own policies and guidelines on the application of the options or leave decisions on the use of options to the cataloger’s judgment. 

Example of RDA Optional Additions: RDA rule 2.8.6.3 is for Recording Date of Publication. Here an optional addition instruction appears after the examples which say “If the date as it appears in the resource is not of the Gregorian or Julian calendar, add the corresponding date or dates of the Gregorian or Julian calendar. Indicate that the information was taken from a source outside the resource itself.” Just after the label Optional Addition, there are icons that link to various policy statements. If you go to the LC-PCC PS for this alternative, it says: “LC practice/PCC practice for Optional addition: Add the corresponding date or dates of the Gregorian or Julian calendar. If dates have been recorded using the Hebrew script, the Gregorian or Julian calendar date may be added in both the non-Latin and romanized field or only the romanized field.” (Click on the image to enlarge)

RDA OPTIONAL ADDITION
"Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org) used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)".
Example of RDA Optional Omissions: RDA rule 2.4.1.5 is for Statement Naming More Than One Person, etc. Here an optional addition instruction appears after the examples which say “If a single statement of responsibility names more than three persons, families, or corporate bodies performing the same function (or with the same degree of responsibility), omit any but the first of each group of such persons, families, or bodies... If you observe the screen image of RDA Toolkit, just after the label Optional Omission there are icons that link to various policy statements. If you go to the LC-PCC PS for this alternative, it says: “LC practice/PCC practice for Optional omission: Generally, do not omit names in a statement of responsibility.” (Click on the image to enlarge)


"Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org) used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)". 


What are RDA Exceptions? 
Glossary of Library & Information Science defines Exceptions in RDA as below:
RDA Exceptions  In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as exceptions. Some instructions are scoped as being applicable only to certain types of resources (such as serials). An exception is an instruction that takes precedence over the immediately preceding instruction and applies to a specific type of resource, condition, etc. Here in RDA Toolkit, an LC-PCC PS appears which suggests the LC practice is to apply the guidelines in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B)) for books published before 1801 and selected early 19th century resources instead of RDA rules. Unlike alternatives and optionsexceptions are not subordinate to general instructions, therefore, RDA exceptions generally do not require policy statements, although some exceptional situations may require some additional considerations. Exceptions must be followed when applicable. They are provided when it is necessary to depart from a rule’s instructions because of a specific type of resource or situation.

Example of RDA Exceptions: RDA rule 2.3.2.5 is for Title in More Than One Form. After the instructions and example, an exception to this rules appears as for Serials and integrating resources, which suggests “If the title of a serial or integrating resource appears on the source of information for the title proper in full as well as in the form of an acronym or initialism, choose the full form as the title proper.” (Click on the image to enlarge)

RDA EXCEPTIONS
"Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org) used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)".
How to decide whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions?
Whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions is cataloger judgment, unless an LC practice has been identified in an LC-PCC PS (for LC catalogers). Each library or cataloging agency must decide whether or not to use each of these alternatives and options. This can be done by choosing one or more of the following approaches: (a) Establishing local policies for all options and alternatives, or (b) Establishing local policies for some, but not all, options and alternatives, or (c) Following the policy statements of other libraries and programs, such as the Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) or British Library Policy Statements (BL PS), or (d) Allowing individual catalogers to use their judgement who are responsible for creating the metadata for the bibliographic items.

Unlike alternatives and options, exceptions are not subordinate to general instructions, therefore, RDA exceptions generally do not require policy statements, although some exceptional situations may require some additional clarification. Exceptions must be followed when applicable. They are provided when it is necessary to depart from a rule’s instructions because of a specific type of resource or situation.

Note on the use of screen images from RDA Toolkit: Screen images from RDA Toolkit is used here for educational and research (non-profit) purposes by following the RDA and RDA Toolkit Copyright Statement, which says: "You are free to copy, distribute, and otherwise share screen images of RDA Toolkit for educational purposes, including training, classroom or online teaching, presentations, review, evaluation, internal library use, and handouts for related activities. You may not use RDA Toolkit screen images for commercial gain, and may not alter, transform, or build upon them without written permission from the Co-Publishers. Each use of an image from RDA Toolkit should be attributed as follows: "Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org) used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)"."

This article is updated in RDA Frequently Asked Questions

Author: Salman Haider [Revised 2016-03-30 | Written 2016-03-30]

Permalink: http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2016/03/alternatives-options-and-exceptions-in-rda.html

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Monday, March 28, 2016

RDA Core Elements

  • Definition of RDA Core Elements
  • Types RDA Core Elements
  • Examples of RDA Core Elements

Core Elements  Core elements in Resource Description & Access (RDA) are minimum elements required for describing resources. Core elements are a new feature of RDA which allowed for certain metadata elements to be identified as “required” in the cataloging process. The assignment of core status is based on attributes mandatory for a national level record, as documented in the FRBR/FRAD modules. At a minimum, a bibliographic description should include all the required core elements that are applicable. Core-ness is identified at the element level. Some elements are always core (if applicable and the information is available); some are core only in certain situations. Core elements are identified in two ways within RDA. The first is that all core elements are discussed in general, and listed as a group, in the sub-instructions of "RDA 0.6: Core Elements". In the separate chapters, the core elements are also identified individually by the label “CORE ELEMENT” at the beginning of the instructions for each element. They are clearly labeled in light blue at each core instruction in RDA Toolkit.  If the status of an element as core depends upon the situation, an explanation appears after the “Core element” label ... ... ...


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